A convenient alternative to harden bone filling materials are injectable bone substitutes ibs in this article recent progress in the development and application of calcium phosphate cp based composites use as ibs is reviewed cp materials have been used widely for bone replacement because of their similarity to the mineral component of bone. Calcium phosphates useful as bone substitute material or for the manufacture of prosthetic devices have been prepared from calcium hydroxyapatite material which has uniformly permeable microporous structure chacterized by a substantially uniform pore volume in the range from about 10 to about 90 and by a pronounced three dimensional fenestrate structure corresponding to the microstructure of . Another injectable bone cement is the recently approved alpha bsm bone substitute material from etex corp it is a resorbable apatite calcium phosphate that can be used to treat trabecular bone. Within the large group of absorbable and nonabsorbable bone substitutes calcium phosphate based materials show excellent biocompatibility. Synthetic materials based on calcium phosphate cap are frequently used as bone graft substitutes when natural bone grafts are not available or not suitable chemical similarity to bone guarantees the biocompatibility of synthetic cap materials whereas macroporosity enables their integration into the natural bone tissue
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